Practical driving test

Practical driving test

To obtain a driving licence and the right to drive a power-driven vehicle of the relevant category, a practical driving test must be taken.

The examinee is deemed the driver during the practical driving test.

A practical driving test can be taken by a person who:

  • has completed a training course for driving a power-driven vehicle (initial or in-service training, continued training if necessary);
  • has passed their theory test;
  • has paid the state fee;
  • has presented a valid identity document.

An applicant for the right to drive is allowed to take the practical driving test in any service centre of the Road Administration regardless of the place of residence of the examinee or location of the training provider.

Practical driving tests are carried out and assessed by an examiner of the Road Administration. Driving tests can be taken in Estonian. If you want to communicate with the examiner in another language when taking the test, you must bring a translator with you. Languages other than Estonian and Estonian Sign Language are foreign languages. An interpreter is needed for Estonian Sign Language.

Before practical driving tests

A practical driving test is not part of the learning process but a means of checking the outcomes of that learning process. To reiterate, the candidates who come to take a practical driving test must have optimal knowledge and skills. It is very difficult if not impossible to pass the test with minimal knowledge and skill.

One of the main skills assessed during a practical driving test is the ability to drive without assistance, primarily regarding attention to traffic control devices and other road users. Therefore, driving lessons before the test should focus more on general driving directions from the instructor without specifically pointing out traffic control devices.

Students must also make sure they understand how to open car doors, start the car, regulate seats and mirrors and handle other control devices (windscreen wipers, lights, indicators, heating and ventilation equipment). The latter details are often left to the instructor to take care of, but this fails to demonstrate that the candidate is capable of being an independent driver. Cars are different, naturally, but similar general principles and symbols apply.

Before taking the national driving test, it is good to check the requirements provided for in the appropriate regulation. We recommend getting behind the wheel a few days prior to taking your practical test. Driving a car immediately before taking the practical diving test may lead to fatigue and be detrimental to the test results.

Examination process

The purpose of testing drivers is to assess whether a person’s knowledge, skills, behaviour and attitude comply with the qualification requirements.

When coming to the practical driving test

  • The examinee must come to the practical driving test on time. It is recommended to arrive 5-10 minutes earlier.
  • When coming to the practical driving test, the examinee must present their identity document. If the examinee fails to present their identity document or the latter is not valid, they will not be allowed to take the practical driving test.
  • When coming to the practical driving test with a driving school, personal or rental vehicle, the examinee must present documents for the traction unit as well as the trailer. The vehicle must be in technical order and clean.
  • When you come to take the test for category A (with subcategories), you must bring the registration certificate of the vehicle and a fully charged mobile phone with headphones (handsfree), so that the examiner can give you the necessary instructions when you’re driving.
  • When you come to take the test for category T, you must bring a fully charged mobile phone with headphones (handsfree), so that the examiner can give you the necessary instructions when you’re driving.
  • The validity of the identity document and the medical certificate must be verified and any special conditions (e.g. eye glasses) must be checked to make sure they are in line with the actual situation.
  • When coming to take a category B practical driving test the examinee generally meets with the examiner in the service area; there is no need to engage with customer service. Practical driving tests for other categories take place at a location determined by the Estonian Road Administration.
  • If the person who has scheduled the practical driving test fails to come to the practical driving test or they have not notified the service centre of the Road Administration of failure to come to the practical driving test within the prescribed time period, the practical driving test is deemed to have been taken and the state fee paid for the practical driving test is deemed to have been used.

Practical driving test

The duration of the practical driving test and the distance covered in that time must be sufficient to assess the skills and behaviour provided for in the qualification requirements. The practical driving test must last at least 45 minutes. Upon applying for the right to drive a category AM vehicle or a limited right to drive, the driving test must last at least 25 minutes. The safety check of the vehicle, the introductory part of the test, the exercises required in the first part of the test and the summarising part are not included in the practical driving test time.

During the driving test, the examinee must drive the vehicle independently, safely, economically and smoothly on roads in built-up areas and on rural roads with varying traffic density and be able to adjust their driving speed in accordance with road and weather conditions. The examinee must be able to drive the vehicle at the maximum speed limit provided that the road and weather conditions are suitable.

Upon applying for the right to drive a motor vehicle of category B or a related subcategory and a combination of vehicles of category B with a mass of 3500 kg to 4250 kg, the practical driving test is conducted according to the requirements for the second part of the driving test and the driving exercises prescribed in Annex 3 are performed and checked on roads with low traffic density.

Upon applying for the right to drive a power-driven vehicle of category AM, A, C or D or a related subcategory or a combination of vehicles of category BE, CE and DE or a related subcategory, the practical driving test is conducted in two parts:

  1. the first part comprises an assessment of the examinee’s ability to perform the special manoeuvres (hereinafter referred to as practical driving test exercises) provided in Annex 3 to the regulation about the examinee in an area adapted for the test without other road users
  2. the second part comprises an assessment of the examinee’s behaviour in traffic and their ability to drive the vehicle independently and safely on roads with varying traffic density and varying conditions in accordance with Annex 4 to the regulation (PDF).

Upon agreement with the examinee, a final examination destination, where a summary will be made, or the navigation software WAZE can be used when driving back.

References to annexes regulating the first and second part of the practical driving test:

Regulation on examination:

Scheduling practical driving tests

Scheduling practical driving tests

The practical driving test can be scheduled via the online service site of the Road Administration (for category A and B practical driving tests only) or in a service centre.

Service centre

Practical driving test options by categories and subcategories

Tallinn

Category AM, A, B, B78, BE, C, CE, D and DE practical driving tests can be taken at the service centre.

  • Category A – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site, in service centres/offices and through your driving school (if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category A in advance).
  • Category AM – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only at service centres/offices. You can schedule a practical test through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category A in advance.
  • Category B and B78 – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site and in service centres/offices.
  • Category BE – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school.
  • Category BE, C, CE, D and DE – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the school has booked a practical driving test day for heavy machinery in advance.

Rapla

Category AM, A, B, B78, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category B78 – practical driving tests can only be taken at the order of a local driving school if the local driving school books a practical test day through the testing centre.
  • Category  B – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only in the Rapla service office or through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day in advance.
  • Category A and AM - practical driving tests can only be taken at the order of a local driving school if the local driving school books a practical test day through the testing centre.
  • Category C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for heavy machinery in advance in association with Kehtna Vocational Education Centre. Practical driving tests for heavy machinery only take place in the driving practice area of Kehtna Vocational Education Centre.

Tartu

Category AM, A, B, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

Jõgeva

Category B practical tests take place at the service office. Scheduling a practical driving test is possible only at local service offices.

Võru

Category B, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category AM and A – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for the appropriate category in advance.
  • Category B – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site, in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for B78 in advance.
  • Category BE, C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only in the local service office and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for heavy machinery in advance.

Põlva

Category B practical tests take place at the service office. Scheduling a practical driving test is possible only at local service offices.

Valga

Category AM and B practical tests take place at the service office. Scheduling a practical driving test is possible only in the local service office and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for B78 in advance.

Pärnu

Category AM, A, B, B79, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category A – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site, in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category A in advance.
  • Category AM – scheduling a practical driving test is possible in service centres/offices and your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for categories AM and A in advance.
  • Category B and B78 – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site, in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for B78 in advance.
  • Category C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for heavy machinery in advance.

Haapsalu

Category A, AM, B, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category A – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category A in advance.
  • Category AM – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only in the local service office and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category AM in advance.
  • Category B – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site, in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for B78 in advance.
  • Category BE, C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for heavy machinery in advance.

Kärdla

Category AM, A, B, BE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category AM and A – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only in the local service office and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category AM and A in advance.
  • Category B – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only at local service offices.
  • Category BE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category BE and T in advance.

Viljandi

Category AM, A, B, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category AM and A – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only in the local service office and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category AM and A in advance.
  • Category B – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site, in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for B78 in advance.
  • Category BE, C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only in the local service office and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for heavy machinery in advance.

Kuressaare

Category AM, A, B, BE, C, CE, D and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category AM and A – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for category AM and A in advance.
  • Category B – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site, in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for B78 in advance.
  • Category BE, C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible only through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for heavy machinery in advance.

Jõhvi

Category AM, A, B, B78, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category AM, A, B and B78 – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site and service centres/offices.
  • Category BE, C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for the appropriate category in advance.

Rakvere

Category AM, A, B, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category B78 – practical driving tests can only be taken at the order of a local driving school if the local driving school books a practical test day through the testing centre.
  • Category AM, A and B – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site and service centres/offices.
  • Category BE, C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for the appropriate category in advance.

Paide

Category AM, A, B, B78, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service centre.

  • Category B and B78 – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site or in service centres/offices.
  • Category AM, A, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online service site, in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for the appropriate category in advance.

Narva

Category B, B78, BE, C, CE, D, DE and T practical driving tests can be taken at the service office.

  • Category B and B78 – scheduling a practical driving test is possible via the online MNT service site and in service centres/offices.
  • Category BE, C, CE, D, DE and T – scheduling a practical driving test is possible in service centres/offices and through your driving school if the driving school has booked a practical driving test day for the appropriate category in advance.

*Practical driving tests with cars with automatic transmission can be taken in Rakvere, Viljandi, Haapsalu, Rapla, Kuressaare, Võru, Valga (as well as in Tartu and Pärnu) only upon agreement with a local driving school, provided that the driving school has booked a practical driving test day through the testing centre in association with the Road Administration.

Upon scheduling a practical driving test for category B, the first vehicle option will be the vehicle that was used for practical lessons at the driving school. This information is given to the Road Administration by your driving school, i.e. whether the power-driven vehicle used during practical lessons had a clutch or not.

In addition to the category B practical test vehicle provided by the Road Administration, the test can also be taken with an appropriate vehicle of the driving school. This requires scheduling the test through your driving school. If the test is taken with the driving school’s motor vehicle, the training provider or a representative of the school must be in the vehicle during the practical driving test for category B.

Information on the waiting time for taking a practical driving test can be obtained when calling the Road Administration information line 620 1200 as well as the regional office.

If you cannot come to the practical driving test, you must inform the regional office of the Road Administration in writing a minimum of three working days before the agreed test date and the date for taking the test will be changed.

In the case of later notification, the time of the practical driving test will not be changed, except if the later notification was caused by unexpected illness of the person or any other circumstances beyond their control and based on the principle of reasonableness that it could not have been expected that the person should have taken this fact into account or should have avoided it and if the person submits relevant proof to the office of this.

If the person who has booked the practical driving test fails to come to the test or they have not informed the regional office of failure to come to the practical driving test within the stipulated time period, the practical driving test is deemed to have taken place and the state fee paid for the practical driving test is deemed to have been used.

Persons who want to take a practical driving test must pay a state fee.

Test vehicles

If the practical driving test for category B takes place with the motor vehicle of the training provider, the examinee’s teacher or a representative of the training provider is in the passenger seat next to the examinee. An additional rear-view mirror and a visible speedometer display must be available for the examiner and additional pedals must be equipped with a functioning alarm device.

The user manual for the driving test vehicles used by the Estonian Road Administration can be read here: driving test vehicle Opel Astra (PDF). Reading the manual is beneficial since the driver has to be able to manage on their own.

Exception: the practical driving test for a combination of vehicles belonging to category B (B96) with a maximum mass of over 3500 kg but under 4250 kg is conducted with the motor vehicle and trailer of the examinee. The examinee’s personal motor vehicle and trailer may only be used to conduct the driving test if the roadworthiness thereof is compliant with existing requirements and the examinee has the registration certificates of the vehicle and the trailer with them.

If a vehicle drawing a category O2 trailer has studded tyres, the trailer must also have studded tyres. If a vehicle drawing a category O2 trailer has studless winter tyres, the trailer must also have studless winter tyres.

  • Category AM, A, A2 and A1 practical driving tests are conducted with a driving test motorcycle/moped of the training provider (driving school) or another (e.g. a personal) motorcycle or moped. The Road Administration does not have vehicles in said (sub)categories. Requirements for driving test vehicles and drivers’ equipment (PDF).

Where a person brings their own motorcycle/moped to the practical driving test, they must also bring the registration certificate of the motorcycle/moped. The latter is required to determine the category of the driving test vehicle. Be sure to bring an identity document.

Persons must ensure their own protective clothing and safety equipment for the practical driving test:

  1. motorcycle helmet
  2. motorcycle gloves
  3. elbow, shoulder and knee guards
  4. motorcycle boots or at least laced boots that support the ankle joint
  5. motorcycle pants are advisable or at least long jeans (shorts and sweatpants of any kind are unsuitable)

More information on safety equipment is available here (PDF). Examinees with mobility disability who have a health certificate permitting them to drive a manual driven vehicle only will take a test with a vehicle adapted to their needs. As an exception, they can take a test in a vehicle that does not have extra clutch and brake pedals but in which the examiner can easily use a parking brake.

Assessment of practical driving tests

The purpose of the driving examination is to assess whether a person’s knowledge, skills, behaviour and attitude comply with the qualification requirements for drivers. Every assessment on a driving situation must reflect the applicant’s skill in handling and driving the vehicle safely while in traffic. The examiner must feel safe for the entire duration of the test. If the examinee makes mistakes while driving and displays hazardous behaviour, thus potentially putting the driving test vehicle, the people inside the vehicle or other road users at risk, the test will be stopped and failed regardless of whether the examiner or the accompanying person needs to step in or not. However, the examiner retains the right to decide whether to complete the test or stop it in accordance with the examinee’s skills and behaviour – the examinee fails and the examiner has no discretionary authority.

During the assessment, the examiner will focus on whether the examinee appears calculated and considerate of others in their driving behaviour. It should reflect a general orderly and safe driving style. The examiner will take this into account to gain an overall understanding of the examinee. This includes an adaptive and confident driving style, consideration of the road and weather conditions and other traffic, consideration of other road users (especially those less protected) and anticipation. Examinees who display all of the above will pass the test.

Exercises as well as the ability to control the vehicle will be assessed during the practical driving test. Clause 50 of Annex 3 to the Examination Regulation states that parking skills can be assessed in two ways. It is mandatory to perform “parking with a manoeuvre” and the test may optionally include “parallel parking”.

An overview of what can and cannot be done while parking a vehicle during the test can be found here (PDF)This material is for additional reading. During the test, the examiner will assess the current traffic situation, the actions of the examinee and whether the examinee complies with the qualification requirements.

The skills, attitude and behaviour of the examinee and how they put their knowledge to practical use are assessed during the test. The examiner will note any mistakes, assessments, comments and their decision on passing or failing the test on the driving test report which is available in the online service site of the Road Administration for three months after the driving test.

The examiner concludes the practical driving test as soon as possible once they see that the preparation (knowledge, skills and behaviour) of the examinee do not support a positive assessment. During the test, the examiner may ask additional questions from the examinee to get a better understanding of their motivations, considerations, alternative options when making decisions, etc. If the examinee does not wish to or is unable to answer, the examiner shall assess what is visible to them and take the examinee’s arguments into consideration, where possible, in the test summary.

Practical driving test results

A provisional driving licence, a driving licence and a licence with a limited right to drive are issued within ten working days of passing the respective test or on the day following the submission of a request to exchange the driving licence.


The driver of a power-driven vehicle must have a valid document certifying their right to drive A document certifying the right to drive is a provisional driving licence, a driving licence, a driving licence with the limited right to drive specified in § 95 of the Traffic Act, an international driving licence issued by a foreign competent authority along with an internal driving licence or, in the events provided by law, a document substituting a driving licence. A person may hold only one valid document certifying their right to drive.


At the time of formalisation of a provisional driving licence and a driving licence, but no later than ten working days from passing the respective examination or from the day following the submission of a request to exchange the driving licence, the person may, upon the existence of a valid right to drive, drive a power-driven vehicle without a document certifying the right to drive only in Estonia. The right to drive a power-driven vehicle is proven based on the data of the motor register.

The right to drive is granted to a person:

  1. who complies with the requirements provided in the Traffic Act;
  2. whose permanent residence for the purpose of the Traffic Act is in Estonia;
  3. who has successfully passed all the required tests and whose test results have been entered into the motor register. The test results are entered in the motor register no later than by the end of the day of the test.

Continued driver training

After their third failed practical driving test, persons must undergo continued training with a driver training provider.

Continued driver training is carried out in the form of driving lessons with regard to the repeated failure of the applicant for the right to drive to pass the practical driving test. The objective of continued training is to better prepare the driver and ensure they acquire the necessary knowledge and skills.

The training provider is responsible for determining the nature of the continued training based on why the applicant failed their driving test. The applicant for the right to drive can see the reasons why they failed their driving test in the test report available in their inbox on the online service site of the Estonian Road Administration. Continuing training must comprise at least two driving lessons. The training provider may, for example, assign more driving lessons, considering the person’s traffic competency (perhaps also additional theory lessons).

A training course certificate and electronic data submitted by the training provider in the motor register prove that the applicant has completed continued training.

Another practical driving test can be scheduled after but not before the completion of continued training.

Safety check questions

While performing the safety check of the motor vehicle, the examiner will ask the examinee to do the following.

  1. Please show how to check that the indicators of the vehicle are in working order.
  2. Please show how to check that the hazard lights of the vehicle are in working order.
  3. Please show how to check that the brakes are in working order (according to the category);
  4. Pleas describe how to check that the brake lights of the vehicle are in working order.
  5. Please open the hood. In this situation, the second question concerns the everyday equipment in the engine area.
  6. Please indicate the location of the windscreen washer fluid container.
  7. Please show how and where to top up on windscreen washer fluid if needed.
  8. Please describe how to check oil levels.
  9. Please show how to open the fuel tank lid.
  10. Please describe how to check that the tyres are in order.
  11. Please describe how to check that the parking brake is in order.
  12. Please show how to use windscreen wipers if needed (e.g. in rainy weather).
  13. Please show how to wash the windscreen if needed.
  14. Please show how to regulate the temperature in the cabin.
  15. Pleas show how you would proceed if the car windows are iced or foggy.
  16. Please show how to switch on the rear fog lights of the motor vehicle if needed.
  17. Please show how to switch on the main-beam headlights of the motor vehicle if needed.
  18. Please show how to check that the horn of the motor vehicle is in working order.
  19. Please show how to turn on the rear window heating.
  20. Please show how to turn on the mirror heating.
  21. Please describe how much fuel is currently in the tank.
  22. Please show how the driver checks whether their passengers are ready for driving.
  23. Please show how to regulate head restraints.
  24. Please show how to properly use a seatbelt.

Passing the practical driving test requires the examinee to be able to conduct an independent safety check of the driving test vehicle pursuant to the principles of road safety. Before the start of the practical test, the examinee must show that they are able to make independent preparations for driving safely and can check and assess the compliance of lights, wheel rims and their respective tyres, brakes, safety equipment or devices, the windscreen and its cleaning systems, the heating and ventilation devices of the vehicle, rear-view mirrors and the seat position. The examiner will ask two questions on safety checks to prompt the examinee to inspect the specified element.

Practical driving tests for restoration of right to drive and in other cases determined by Traffic Act

Restoration of the right to drive takes place in accordance with § 129 of the Traffic Act.

Driving licences issued in a foreign state are exchanged for an Estonian driving licence in accordance with § 99 of the Traffic Act.

In the first part of the practical driving test, the examinee must safely manoeuvre and perform exercises with the vehicle.

In the second part of the driving test, the examinee must drive the vehicle independently, safely, economically and smoothly on roads in built-up areas and on rural roads with varying traffic density and be able to adjust their driving speed in accordance with road and weather conditions. The examinee must be able to drive the vehicle at the maximum speed limit provided that the road and weather conditions are suitable.

Upon restoration of the right to drive or exchange of a foreign driving licence, the practical driving test will be conducted with a proper driving test vehicle determined by the Estonian Road Administration.

 

 

 

Common mistakes, which lead to failure to pass the test or provide the basis for such an assessment, are the following (this list and the specified situations are not comprehensive because traffic is dynamic):

  • Insufficient attention to, which is mostly reflected in failure to notice traffic control devices. The examinee fails to check the mirrors (for example, only uses the rear-view mirror), does not notice pedestrians or vulnerable road users, ignores their obligation to give way, fails to give way to an emergency vehicle, violates the requirements of a prohibiting traffic light, etc.
  • Insufficient handling of the motor vehicle, which is reflected in failure to perceive the dimensions of the motor vehicle (the driver hits something or creates a situation with the potential to hit something) or failure to use control devices –for example, looking at the gearstick while changing gears, turning the signal lights on and off at the wrong time, the inability to accelerate and decelerate, insufficient separation and lateral distance with other vehicles or road users.
  • Inability to perform parking exercises – both parallel parking and parking with a manoeuvre. Especially the inability to find an empty parking place without assistance and failure to adjust the position of a vehicle that is not properly parked. The parked motor vehicle is not fully stopped, the vehicle is parked with the gear engaged, causing the car to move unintendedly, driving onto a green area, etc.
  • Inadequate driving experience on roads, which is reflected in inappropriate driving speed, insufficient use of acceleration and deceleration lanes. Insufficient monitoring of traffic and hazard detection and failure to react appropriately. Traffic situations on roads outside built-up areas develop slowly and the examinee must be particularly perspicacious.
  • Inability to find solutions without assistance. For example, independent tasks where the examinee is asked to find an opportunity to make a U-turn leading them to cause a dangerous situation or violate traffic rules or where the examiner instructs the examinee to drive towards a settlement following signposts and the latter fails to keep an eye on the traffic and traffic control devices, etc.
  • There are shortcomings in theoretical knowledge that prevent the examinee from coping while in traffic.